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Metallographic Polishing Pads (PSA)

Metallographic polishing pads

Polishing Cloths (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive - PSA)


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Polishing Cloths
Polishing is the most important step in preparing a specimen for microstructural analysis. It is the step which is required to completely eliminate previous damage. Ideally the amount of damage produced during cutting and grinding was minimized through proper blade and abrasive grinding so that polishing can be minimized.

Metallographic Polishing PadsCloths for polishing vary by the height of their fiber, known as the nap and by the stiffness or resiliency of the fiber. In general, the lower nap (also non-woven) and stiffer fiber cloths are used for the rough polishing steps. These types of polishing cloths or pads are very effective in removing sectioning damage done by cutting and coarse grinding. Conversely, higher napped polishing cloths provide a more gentle abrasive interaction for the final polish. The polishing pads are available with either a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) or on a magnetic backing. The following is a list of most common polishing cloths:



POLISHING CLOTH SELECTION GUIDELINE

Metallographic metal mesh cloth CERMESH Metal Mesh cloth - this is a wire mesh material useful for coarse and intermediate lapping/polishing. The texture of this wire allows for the abrasive to become semi-fixed; thus offering the advantage of increased stock removal, while minimizing damage
Metallographic CERMESH metal cloth
Metallographic POLYPAD polishing pad POLYPAD Polishing Pad - this cloth is a synthetic polyester polishing pad which has a similar action to a nylon pad, with the exception that it is much more durable. It is used in the intermediate polishing steps
Metallographic POLYPAD polishing cloth
Metallographic TEXPAN Polishing Cloth TEXPAN Polishing Pad - this is the most commonly used polishing cloth material for the intermediate polishing steps. TEXPAN Polishing pad is a non-woven polishing pad.
Metallographic TEXPAN polishing cloth
Metallographic Black Chem 2 Polishing Pad Black CHEM 2 Polishing Pad - this is a porometric polymer pad which has a consistency similar to a rubber type of pad. Black CHEM 2 pad has a low nap but behaves as an intemediate polishing pad with a performance between low napped and high napped pads.
Metallographic Black Chem polishing pad
Metallographic Dacron Polishing Pad DACRON Polishing Cloth - this is a low napped polishing pad for polishing primarily with 1-15 micron diamond abrasives. The DACRON pad is the most popular intermediate polishing pad in Europe and is used mostly for polishing metals. Its high nap provides it a very soft and gentle polishing action.
Note: DACRON is a registered trade name of DUPONT Corporation.
Metallographic DACRON polishing pad
NYPAD Polishing Pad - this is a low napped silk polishing pad for intermediate polishing primarily with intermediate diamond abrasives.
Metallographic Nypad polishing pad
GOLD PAD Polishing Pad - is a low napped polishing pad for imtermediate polishing primarily with 1-9 micron diamond.
Metallographic Gold Pad polishing pad

ATLANTIS Polishing Pad - is a high napped final polishing pad for most metals. It has a slightly lower nap then the MICROPAD polishing pads.

Metallographic Atlantis polishing pad
Metallographic MICROPAD polishing pad MICROPAD and MICROPAD 2 Polishing Cloth - this is the most common high napped final polishing pad for most metals and polymers. Its high nap provides it a very soft and gentle polishing action.
Metallographic MICROPAD polishing pad
TRICOTE Polishing Pad -a tight high napped final polishing pad for most metals. It has a tigher nap then the MCIROPAD polishing pads
Metallographic TRICOTE polishing pad
Metallographic NAPPAD polishing pad NAPPAD Polishing Pad - this is another high napped final polishing pad useful for most metals and polymers. It has a higher nap than MICROPAD, providing it with a very gentle polishing action which is very useful for polishing soft materials such as copper, aluminun and austentite steels.
Metallographic NAPPAD polishing pad
Metallographic Moltec Polishing pad MOLTEC 2 Polishing Pad - this is wool polishing cloth used for final polishing and has a very high nap. It is most commonly used for final polishing metals where edge retention is a minimal consideration.
Metallographic MOLTEC polishign pad

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RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES (Polishing Pads)
  • Place pad on a flat lap plate
  • Pre-charge pad with abrasive suspension, paste or powder
  • Apply necessary lubricant
  • Begin polishing with lower force to avoid tearing pad
  • Clean specimen and pad for final 10-15 seconds of polishing cycle
  • Clean and dry specimens
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POLISHING PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Polishing can be broken into two stages: rough and final polishing. Proper rough polishing removes all subsurface damage produced during cutting and grinding. In most cases this is accomplished with polycrystalline diamond abrasives and low napped polishing cloths. The final polishing step should be kept to a minimum and used only to clean up surface blemishes. Note that excessive final polishing times can result in phase relief, edge rounding, smeared material and inclusion pull-out. Final polishing is accomplished with high napped cloths and fine graded alumina or colloidal silica abrasives.

Minimizing Polishing Artifacts

To minimize polishing artifacts such as edge rounding, phase relief, smeared metal, grain pull-out and inclusion pull-out, the polishing time needs to be kept to a minimum. This can be accomplished by:

  • minimizing sectioning damage
  • grinding with the finest feasible abrasives
  • using flat polishing base plates
Minimizing sectioning damage and using the correct grinding abrasives are fairly obvious. However, using a flat supporting plate is generally over looked by most suppliers of metallographic equipment, and if they do consider plate flatness they generally do not go far enough. As a guideline, an 8-inch plate should have no more than a 0.0001 inch (2.5 um) runout, which represents a 0.6 um runout over a 1-inch diameter specimen. Recognize that final polishing abrasives have a typical size of 0.05-0.06 um, thus these tolerances are required to minimize polishing times. In addition, if the specimen is not flat on the polishing plate then a differential pressure occurs across the specimen, which causes polishing relief. Likewise for a 12-inch diameter plate the runout should not exceed 0.0002 inches (5 um). As a result both polishing times and differential polishing pressures can be minimized.

Suggestion: If your polishing plate is not flat within these tolerances they should be lapped to these tighter tolerances.

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TROUBLE SHOOTING for POLISHING

Symptom

Cause

Action

Coarse scratching

  • Contamination on polishing pad
  • Replace with a new pad
  • Tearing of pad

  • Too high a polishing force
  • Improper lubrication
  • Reduce polishing force
  • Dispense lubricant or abrasive more frequently
  • Excessive relief or edge rounding

  • Improper polishing pad selection
  • Excessive polishing times
  • Refer to polishing cloth guide
  • Reduce polishing times and re-examine effectiveness of previous step

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    POLISHING PRODUCT DESCRIPTION (PSA)
    (For Magnetic click here)

    METAL MESH ABRASIVE CLOTH (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    CERMESH metal mesh cloth

    8

    5/pkg.

    CMESH-2008

    CERMESH metal mesh cloth

    10

    5/pkg.

    CMESH-2010

    CERMESH metal mesh cloth

    12

    5/pkg.

    CMESH-2012


    POLYPAD POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    POLYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    PP-6008

    POLYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    PP-6010

    POLYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    PP-6012


    TEXPAN POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    TEXPAN polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    TP-5008

    TEXPAN polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    TP-5010

    TEXPAN polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    TP-5012


    Black CHEM 2 POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    Black CHEM 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    BC-8008

    Black CHEM 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    BC-8010

    Black CHEM 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    BC-8012


    DACRON POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    DACRON polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    5/pkg

    DC-3008

    DACRON polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    5/pkg

    DC-3012

    Note: DACRON is a registered tradename of Dupont Corporation.

    NYPAD POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    NYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    NY-3008

    NYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    NY-3010

    NYPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    NY-3012


    GOLD PAD POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    GOLD PAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    GP-4008

    GOLD PAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    GP-4010

    GOLD PAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    GP-4012


    ATLANTIS POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    ATLANTIS polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    5/pkg.

    ATL-3008

    ATLANTIS polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    5/pkg.

    ATL-3010

    ATLANTIS polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    5/pkg.

    ATL-3012


    MICROPAD POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    MICROPAD polishing pad w/PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    MP-9008

    MICROPAD polishing pad w/PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    MP-9010

    MICROPAD polishing pad w/PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    MP-9012


    MICROPAD 2 POLISHING PADS (with stiffer adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    MICROPAD 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    MP2-9008

    MICROPAD 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    10

    10/pkg.

    MP2-9010

    MICROPAD 2 polishing pad w/PSA

    12

    10/pkg.

    MP2-9012


    TRICOTE POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    TRICOTE polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    TRI-4008

    TRICOTE polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg

    TRI-4010

    TRICOTE polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg

    TRI-4012


    NAPPAD POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    NAPPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    10/pkg.

    NP-7008

    NAPPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    10/pkg

    NP-7010

    NAPPAD polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    10/pkg

    NP-7012


    MOLTEC 2 POLISHING PADS (with adhesive backing)

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    MOLTEC 2 polishing pad w/ PSA

    8

    5/pkg

    MT2-7008

    MOLTEC 2 polishing pad w/ PSA

    10

    5/pkg

    MT2-7010

    MOLTEC 2 polishing pad w/ PSA

    12

    5/pkg

    MT2-7012




    MAGNETIC POLISHING BASE for Adhesive backed POLISHING PADS

    Description

    Diameter (inches)

    Quantity

    Catalog Number

    8" magnetic base plate
    (PSA backed)

    8

    each

    MAG-B08

    10" magnetic base plate
    (PSA backed)

    10

    each

    MAG-B10

    12" magnetic base plate
    (PSA backed)

    12

    each

    MAG-B12

    8" teflon coated base plate

    8

    each

    MAG-P08

    10" teflon coated base plate

    10

    each

    MAG-P10

    12" teflon coated base plate

    12

    each

    MAG-P12


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